Bradykinin-mediated angioedema in women

In women, changes in the hormone balance can trigger angioedema attacks. Women should, therefore, be vigilant for signs of angioedema during times of natural changes in hormone levels. For example, the disorder frequently manifests itself during puberty. The frequency and severity of attacks may increase as a result of using medications that contain oestrogen, such as certain oral contraceptives and hormone-replacement therapy for post-menopausal women. The same holds for the period during or after a pregnancy and for the menopause.